In vitro fertilization (from lat. extra — outside, beyond, and lat. corpus — body, that is fertilization outside the body, abbr. ECO) — assisted reproductive technology used in case of infertility. Synonyms: "fertilization in vitro", "in vitro fertilization", "artificial insemination", in English abbreviated as IVF (in vitro fertilization).
During IVF, an egg is removed from the woman's body and fertilized in artificial conditions in vitro ("in glass", the resulting embryo will contain in the conditions of the incubator, where it develops within 2-5 days, after which the embryo is transferred into the uterus for further development..
Typically, for in vitro fertilization try to get some eggs, as it increases the efficiency of infertility treatment by this method. Because normally women during one menstrual cycle, one egg Matures, it is possible to obtain multiple oocytes conduct so-called procedure of "superovulation". For this the patients are given injections of hormonal drugs. To stimulate the use of injection drugs follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), in combination with agonists or antagonists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The mode of administration of certain drugs inducers of ovulation called "stimulation regimen" or "Protocol". There are several schemes superovulation, but the final number, types and duration of introduction of preparations are selected individually for each woman, depending on her age, cause of infertility and follicular (ovarian) reserve. Stimulation of superovulation may take 7 to 20 days and is an injection or taking the pill drugs. Maturation of oocytes can not be directly determined by non-invasive methods. Therefore, the maturation of oocytes is judged indirectly by the growth of the ovarian follicles. Follicular growth observed with the help of ultrasound machines. Upon reaching the dominant follicle of a certain size (16-20 mm) prescribe the procedure for the removal of the egg — puncture of the ovarian follicles. The oocyte retrieval is performed under a General (usually) or local (less) anesthesia, the needle is pushed through transvaginal probe, the needle move control of the ultrasound machine. The purpose of the puncture is the aspiration (suction) of the contents of the follicle (follicular fluid). The resulting fluid examined with a microscope for the detection of oocytes (eggs). The retrieved oocytes are washed from the follicular fluid and transferred to Petri dishes containing culture medium, which is placed in incubators until you add the prepared sperm. Usually, the use of hormonal preparations and the puncture of follicles does not cause negative reactions in the patient, but sometimes complications may occur. Complication of superovulation is ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (ohss), which can occur during and a few days after the end of stimulation as a result of maturation of a large number of follicles. Oocyte retrieval may be complicated by external or internal bleeding. If it is impossible to obtain the egg of the patient (absence of ovaries, menopause, etc.) is possible using donor eggs (i.e. eggs of another woman). As an egg donor can be a selfless donor (a relative, friend) or a paid donor.